Chemistry plays an important role in engineering. Chemical engineers transform processes developed in the laboratory into real-world applications for the commercial production of products and then work to continue and advance those processes. They rely on the main foundations of engineering.
Covering the basic principles of chemistry and its applied aspects, this book provides the correct interface between the principles of chemistry and engineering. The use of surfactants as an additive plays an important role in a variety of technological processes such as in the food industry, detergency, drug delivery, cosmetics, foam stability, and in granule formation from the drying of colloidal dispersions. Therefore, this book starts with a study on morphological transformations during the drying of surfactant-nanofluid droplets. The drying behavior of single droplets has been widely investigated, providing insight into understanding the complex dynamics during phase change, as the resulting morphologies have been shown to be similar to those produced by industrial spray drying. One of the standard kraft paper pulp mills manufactures crude oil that is a mixture of free fatty acids, rosin acids, sterols, terpenoid compounds, and lots of others. This book, further, is devoted to the issue of direct transformation of crude tall oil in a mixture with straight-run atmospheric gas oil to liquid fuels using three different commercial hydrotreating catalysts. It also presents lucrative information on the synthesis and characterization of reduced graphene oxide and their application in dye-sensitized solar cells.
Succeeding, the book proposes on the synthesis of chalcone using LDH/Graphene nanocatalysts of different compositions; a novel perspective in the industrial manufacture of perchlorates; biofuels production from biomass by thermochemical conversion technologies; and biodiesel synthesis monitoring using near-infrared spectroscopy; kinetics of decomposition reactions of acetic acid using DFT approach. An excessive quantity of oxygen content in unprocessed bio-oil deteriorates the standard of bio-oil that cannot be utilized in transportation vehicles while not upgrading. Acetic acid (CH3COOH) is a vital component of ‘acids’ catalog of unprocessed bio-oil produced from thermochemical conversions of most of the biomass feedstocks such as switchgrass, alfalfa, etc. In this book, the decomposition reactions of acetic acid are carried out by two reaction pathways, i.e., decarboxylation and dehydration reactions. In addition, the reaction rates of decomposition are analyzed in a wide range of temperatures, i.e., 298-900 K and at atmospheric pressure. This intended book will be of value to the students, scientists, researchers, and other stakeholders associated with the subject area.