Pesticides are commonly used in agriculture to improve crop yield and quality by controlling plant diseases. Most pesticides must be formulated using suitable formulations to keep bioactivity and enhance efficacy, safety, and convenience of the active ingredients while spraying. Conventional pesticide formulations mainly include emulsifiable concentrate (EC), wettable powder (WP), and suspension concentrate (SC). In the EC formulation, large amounts of organic solvents such as toluene and xylene are used as main components that are toxic, inflammable, and explosive.
Covering new research and cutting-edge studies on the design and application of environmentally safe formulations for defending cultivated crops contrary to pathogens instigating diseases and weeds, this work provides in vitro and in vivo studies revealing insights into the water-soluble chitosan, low molecular weight chitosan (LMWCh) action in phytopathogens and plants. Effective action of LMWCh in combination with suboptimal doses of Mancozeb for the control of late blight was demonstrated. Additional field trials could also provide knowledge on its efficiency and environmental implications.
In the succeeding chapters, the book focuses on effective pesticide nanoformulations and their bacterial degradation; study on surfactant-solvent mixture formulation and its application on pesticide emulsion product; the role of the formulation in the efficacy and dissipation of agricultural insecticides; and unidentified inert ingredients in pesticides and its implications for human and environmental health.
The book also looks at the preparation of eco-friendly formulations containing biologically active monoterpenes with their fumigant and residual toxicities against adults of Culex pipiens. The interactions between herbicide adjuvants and herbicide activity, however, are not simple processes and depend on factors that include crop/weed leaf surface, droplet characteristics, adjuvant type, the chemical form of the herbicide, and environmental conditions. Understanding the complexity of these interactions is essential for optimum herbicide utilization, particularly in prolonging, enhancing and improving the efficacy; reduction of the critical rain-free period; minimizing herbicide leaching into groundwater, and decreasing harmful effects to non-target plants and animals.
This book brings together eminent researchers and authors to describe the problems connected with agrochemicals.