Ecosystems are the planet’s productive engines that provide us everything we require to live a healthy and happy life. Coastal ecosystems produce more services to human well-being than most of the other systems. Just as our sustenance depends on the ecosystem, similarly, the ecosystem’s sustenance also depends on us and how we use it. Earth ecosystem and human beings a bound together in a symbiotic relationship. Human beings depend on various ecosystems to sustain their life ecosystems are the productive engines of the planet, which provide us with everything from the water we drink, the food we eat, the fiber we use for clothing, paper, and lumber. Yet every measure we take regarding the health of the ecosystem tells us that we are drawing the ecosystem towards degradation. The pace is quite accelerating.
Changing conditions—such as rising air and water temperatures, increasing sea levels, and acidification of the oceans—will alter, and in some cases, destroy habitats. Existing land use activities and growing pressure from urban development and new infrastructure can increase habitat loss. The human response to climate change also has implications for species and habitat. As sea levels rise, shoreline armoring may temporarily protect structures from flooding and likely eliminate coasts and beaches. Levees installed for flood protection may reduce the quantity, quality, and diversity of riparian habitat for fish.
Healthy marine and coastal ecosystems provide many valuable services – from food security, economic growth, and recreation alongside tourism and coastline protection. They are also recognized as crucial reservoirs of biodiversity when the loss of species on both lands and in the sea is an increasing cause for concern. Among the most productive ecosystems on the planet, oceans and coasts ensure a growing global population’s well-being, which is likely to rise to over nine billion by 2050. They regulate the global climate and offer essential adaptation capacity. The future role of ecosystems for human well-being depends increasingly on developing countries’ capacity to manage human uses and impacts to ensure their health and self-repairing capacity are not undermined.